|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 95-100
Effect of different household processing on nutritional and anti-nutritional factors in Vigna aconitifolia and Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench seeds and their product development
Ekta Singh1, Pankaj Kumar Jain2, Swapnil Sharma2
1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Banasthali University, Banasthali, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Banasthali, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Web Publication||4-Aug-2015|
Dr. Swapnil Sharma
Department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, Banasthali - 304 022, Rajasthan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: This study involves the effect of different household processing on nutritional and anti-nutritional factors in moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) seeds and with their product development.
Methods: This study involves the effect of different homemade processing of moth and Sorghum on proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors and further development of certain products using processed moth and Sorghum flours.
Results: During the process of soaking, the moisture content, and vitamin C contents were found to be increased; with a significant decrease in ash content, fat content, crude fiber content, protein content in both samples (except iron content). In moth bean, 72 h germination process resulted in a decrease in moisture content, fat content, crude fiber content, with an increase in ash content, protein content, iron content, and vitamin C contents whereas in Sorgum all the contents were decreased except moisture content, and vitamin C contents. Ash content, protein content, iron content and vitamin C content with a significant decrease in moisture content, fat content, and fiber content. After processing, the anti-nutritional factors were also decreased in both samples. The modified recipes with the processed moth bean, Sorghum, and blended flours were developed as thalpeeth and papri-chat and acceptability studies of products were carried out and compared with standard. It was found that all samples were acceptable to panel members making then quality for the potential usage as delivery vehicles for use gluten allergy, scurvy, and malnourished children.
Conclusion: We can conclude that moth bean and Sorghum to our diet will help to improve the nutritional profile at low cost.
Keywords: Anti-nutrients, digestibility, germination, tannins
|How to cite this article:|
Singh E, Jain PK, Sharma S. Effect of different household processing on nutritional and anti-nutritional factors in Vigna aconitifolia and Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench seeds and their product development. J Med Nutr Nutraceut 2015;4:95-100
|How to cite this URL:|
Singh E, Jain PK, Sharma S. Effect of different household processing on nutritional and anti-nutritional factors in Vigna aconitifolia and Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench seeds and their product development. J Med Nutr Nutraceut [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 May 22];4:95-100. Available from: https://www.jmnn.org/text.asp?2015/4/2/95/151809
| Introduction|| |
The supplements of cereals with the high protein legumes are considered to be one of the best preventable measures for the protein energy malnutrition.  Pulses are a rich source of protein and constitute important item of diets of the population of Asia and they are suitable protein supplements to cereals and also contain good quality of vitamins and nutrients. 
Moth bean is commonly grown in arid areas of India and is consumed either as such after cooking or after germination and cooking. Moth bean is the unexploited legumes of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dry-land agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legume. Like other legume this legume is deficient in methionine and tryptophan. ,
Sorghum and millet are significant contributes to protein and energy requirement for millions of people, especially for the poor person in Africa and Asia. Sorghum is adapted to a wide range of ecological condition and can be grown under unfavorable condition because it is tolerate to adverse condition such as hot and dry also in areas of high rainfall, water logging drought, poor fertility, and salinity soil. 
Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) form a stale diet for poorer masses of the people in many countries.  Like other plant proteins, Sorghum protein quality is poor. Inadequate intake of good quality proteins is an important factor responsible for the widespread prevalence of protein energy malnutrition. Poor nutritional quality of grain Sorghum has been attributed to the low levels of certain essential amino acids especially lysine, threonine and tryptophan and excessive content of leucine. The grain Sorghum also contain phenolic compounds namely tannins, which decrease the protein utilization. ,
The nutritive value of grain legumes depends primarily on their nutrient and the presence or absence of anti-nutrient and toxic factors.  Some simple and inexpensive processing technique, such as soaking, germination, and cooking are highly efficient for the reduction of anti-nutritional factors and for improving its organoleptic quality. 
The unique nutritional composition of moth bean and Sorghum will make a great scope to meet the nutritional requirement of malnourished people of our country. By taking this view, the present study was undertaken.
| Objectives of the Study|| |
- To undertake processing of moth bean and Sorghum by soaking and germination, respectively
- To assess the proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors of processed moth bean, Sorghum, and blended flour
- To develop commonly consumed products based on processed flours
- To evaluate organoleptic acceptability of processed moth bean and Sorghum blended flour based products by nine-point hedonic scale.
| Methods|| |
The methodological aspects of the study have been discussed as under
Phase - I
Phase I consisted of processing of moth bean and Sorghum. Both undergo for 10 h soaking process and germination process for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively.
Procurement of materials
Moth bean and Sorghum were obtained in bulk from local market of Shri Ganganagar (Raj) and were cleaned, dried, and stored safely in container.
Processing of moth bean and Sorghum
Processing of both, that is, soaking and germination (24, 48, 72 h individually) greatly enhance the nutritive values of grains and improve the shelf life. Selection of the best stage of both was carried out based on highest vitamin C content. Then moth bean and Sorghum flour as well as blended were prepared.
Phase - II
Analysis of nutritional composition of moth bean and Sorghum flours and blended flours: This part of the study focused on nutrient estimation of flours. All sample of row and processed were analyzed for nutrient given below:
Moisture and ash by drying method,  fat content by Soxhlet method, crude fiber by acid and alkali treatment,  protein content by estimate nitrogen content,  vitamin C,  and iron by Wong's method. 
Analysis of anti-nutrients of moth bean and Sorghum flours and blended flours: Tannins  and phytic acid  were estimated.
Phase - III
Product development and sensory evaluation
Selection and standardization of recipes
In order to prepare recipes for this study, homebased recipes were selected, which could be enriched suitably to meet the objective of this experimentation. The criteria of selection were: Easy availability of ingredients, commonly consumed by local people.
Keeping all these considerations in mind, processed moth bean and Sorghum flours were used to prepare value added products replaced with refined flour. Two products viz., thalpeeth and papdi chat were prepared in food science laboratory of Food Science and Nutrition Department, Banasthali University. These recipes first standardized and then replaced with refined flour in the products, after that sensory evaluation was done. Selection of panel members was carried out by triangle difference test and sensory evaluation was done by nine-point hedonic scale.
Phase - IV
For analysis and interpretation of data different statistical methods mean, standard deviation, and Student's t-test were used.
| Result|| |
- The result would be discussed under the following heads:
- Nutrient analysis of moth bean and Sorghum flour and blended flour
- Anti-nutritional factor analysis of blended flour
- Sensory evaluation of food products by nine-point hedonic scale.
Effect of different processing on moisture content
As predict in [Table 1], the moisture content of unprocessed moth bean and Sorghum were 10.30 and 9.8 g/100 g, respectively. After soaking the moisture content in the individual flours were 12.9, 11.44 g/100 g, respectively. As data indicated that the moisture content was found to be increased in both soaked samples. Whereas in 24, 48, and 72 h germinated moth bean flours had 12.6, 9.3, and 9.9 g/100 g moisture content, respectively. The moisture content was decreased significantly in moth bean. Whereas the moisture content in 24, 48, and 72 h in germinated Sorghum increased to 11.2, 10.2, and 10.7 g/100 g, respectively. The moisture content of Sorghum in all three germination period differed significantly from each other.
|Table 1: Effect of different processing on the nutritional composition of moth bean and Sorghum |
Click here to view
The increase in moisture content was due to changes resulting from the uptake of water during soaking. Low moisture content was observed in germinated flour due to drying grain after germination.
Effect of different processing on ash content
The samples were analyzed for their mineral ash content, that is, the total amount of mineral they contained. This help to evaluate the overall quality of the sample in term of their mineral composition and centrifugation.
Data given on [Table 1] showed that unprocessed moth bean and Sorghum content were 3.0, 1.9 g/100 g, respectively. After soaking the ash content were decreased in both moth bean and Sorghum that were 2.8 and 1.7 g/100 g, respectively. After germination, the ash content in moth bean was increased 2.8, 2.84, and 3.12 g/100 g with the increased germination period. Whereas in Sorghum the ash content were 1.82, 1.85 g/100 g on all two stages of germination 24 and 48 h and it was decreased significantly on germination for 72 h.
An increase in ash content is considered to be apparently caused by the loss of starch, while a decrease can be attributed to leaching losses during soaking and rinsing. ,,
Effect of different processing on fat content
Data given on [Table 1] indicated the fat content of unprocessed moth bean and Sorghum were 2.8, 4.66 g/100 g, respectively. This was reduced to 1.5, 3.34 g/100 g, respectively during the soaking process. The fat content in moth bean decreased 2.2, 1.99, 1.35 g/100 g significantly with the increased germination period at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The trend for changes in fat content of germinated Sorghum flours had 3.28, 3.18, and 3.65 g/100 g, respectively in all 24, 48, and 72 h period of germination. The fat content in germinated Sorghum flours was significantly decreased than standard in all three germination period.
The similar result observed by Vale et al.  The decrease in fat in moth bean during germination may be due to increased activity of lipase.  This can be attributed high lipolytic enzyme activity which breakdown the triglyceride to similar fatty acids especially with soaked and germinated.  The reduction in fat content observed during germination a reduction in the energy value implies of all test similar result was obtained by the Vasishtha and Srivastava. 
Effect of different processing on crude fiber content
Data given on [Table 1] indicated that the crude fiber content in unprocessed/standard moth bean and Sorghum were 4.34, 1.79 g/100 g, respectively and after soaking treatment crude fiber were decreased 4.2, 1.62 g/100 g, respectively. After germination fiber content significantly decreased in the samples, the moth bean and Sorghum.
Similar result had been reported by other workers. , Cell wall degradation during the sprouting lowers crude fiber content. 
Effect of different processing on protein content
As dedicated in [Table 1] that protein content of unprocessed moth bean and Sorghum were 23.78, 12.56 g/100 g, respectively. Soaking of grains caused significant decreased in protein content in both moth bean and Sorghum 21.34, 10.54 g/100 g, respectively. Then subsequent germination for 24, 48, and 72 h caused significant increase in protein content on moth bean 24.10, 24.45, and 24.95 g/100 g, respectively. Whereas, in Sorghum seed with 24, 48, and 72 h germination had decreased 11.60, 10.32, and 10.20 g/100 g, respectively when compared to standard.
Loss of dry weight (carbohydrates) during sprouting may show apparent increases in protein, while loss of low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds during soaking and rinsing of grains cause a decrease in crude protein on sprouting.  Similar finding were reported by Kylen and McReady.  Who attribute the increase to protein synthesis at the time of sprouting alfalfa, lentil, mung beans, and soybeans. It was also possible that the increase in protein was due to changes resulting from the uptake of water during germination.
Effect of different processing on iron content
Iron content in unprocessed moth bean and Sorghum were 8.9 mg, 4.55 mg/100 g, respectively as shown in [Table 1]. After soaking the iron content was increased in moth bean (10.7 mg/100 g) but decrease in Sorghum up to (3.5 mg/100 g) when compare to unprocessed. Similarly, germination for 24, 48, and 72 h had increase in moth bean 9.5, 10.1, and 10.7 mg/100 g, whereas decreased in Sorghum with increased in germination period.
The decrease in iron content observed with a corresponding increase in sprouting period is attributed to leaching losses. 
Effect of different processing on vitamin C content
The vitamin C content of unprocessed moth bean was 1.8 mg/100 g and in Sorghum was 0.6 mg/100 g as shown in [Table 1]. After soaking there were slightly increase in values 3.8, 1.2 mg/100 g in moth bean and Sorghum, respectively. The increase value by germination was in both. In moth bean 11, 11.8, and 8.5 mg/100 g with respect to increasing germination period. Same as with Sorghum value 1, 2, 2.8 mg/100 g content were increased.
The ascorbic acid has been found to increase continuously and significantly with progressive sprouting.  The germination of pulses increases its nutritional contents. The germination pulses have high vitamin C content, other vitamins, and folic acid. 
The nutritional composition of blended flour
Germination process significantly influenced the nutrient content; as shown in [Table 2]. Most of the nutrients were slightly decreased, e.g. fat content, crude fiber, iron content, and protein content with an increase in moisture and ash and vitamin C content.
|Table 2: Effect of germination processing on the nutritional composition of blended flour |
Click here to view
Germination process remarkably decreased the anti-nutritional factors in both samples as shown in [Table 3]. The tannin content in unprocessed blended flour had 625 mg/100 g and the phytic content in unprocessed blended flour had found 855 mg/100 g. In processed blended flour, the tannin and phytic acid were found 315 mg/100 g and 715 mg/100 g, respectively. Loss of tannin germination may be due to enzymatic degradation.  Similarly, Deosthale  the reason assigned for this reduction was a breakdown of tannins content during germination. The breakdown of phytic acid during germination could be attributable to an increase in the activity of endogenous phytate as reported for faba bean cultivars. 
|Table 3: Effect of processing on the anti-nutritional factors of blended flour |
Click here to view
Nielsen et al.,  Reddy et al.  also observed that food processing such as soaking and germination of whole cereals and legumes activate the endogenous plant phytases as well as bacterial phytates. These reduce the hexaform of phytic acid into lower form having lower acids and B-complex vitamins. 
As depicted in [Table 4], thalpeeth was made by tally replaced with processed moth bean flour, Sorghum flour, and blended flour. Data ranged from 6.85 ± 0.87 to 8.35 ± 0.58 for all attributes of sensory appearance, color, flavor, aftertaste, texture, and overall acceptability. In all the test samples, the sample B (Sorghum flour) was more acceptable as compared to sample A and C.
|Table 4: Acceptability evaluation of thalpeeth and papri-chat replaced with processed moth bean and Sorghum flours |
Click here to view
As shown in [Table 4], papri chat was made by totally replaced with processed moth bean flour, Sorghum flour, and blended flour. The score between 7.45 ± 1.1 and 8.65 ± 0.59 for all attributes of sensory appearance, color, flavor, after taste, texture, and overall acceptability. Data depicted that according to overall acceptability sample B was more acceptable as compared to the standard sample. The samples A and C were also found to be similarly acceptable. They have slightly differed from each other thus all the test samples of papri chat were equally as good as standard.
| Discussion|| |
The problem of food and nutrition security is of paramount importance in India. The diet consumed by a large majority of the population in India are lacking in number of dietary essentials resulting in widespread prevalence of malnutrition. Pulses are relatively cheaper sources of protein than milk, cheese, meat, fish, almonds and cashew, etc., hence, valuable for the people who belongs lower income groups. The unique nutritional composition of moth bean and Sorghum will make a great scope to meet the nutritional requirement of malnourished and poor people of our country. As we know that moth bean rich in lysine amino acid and Sorghum is rich in methionine thus, they both fulfill each other requirement when we use these in combination.
The underutilized food grains moth bean and Sorghum have a vast scope for not only supporting the commercially grown crops by reducing pressure on their availability, but they are cheap source of nutrients and can be raised at low management cost. However, these coarse grains also contain anti-nutritional factors such as phytate and tannins, which due to their iron binding effect worsen the situation of widespread prevalent iron deficiency anemia. Hence, it is recommend that for proper utilization of cereals and pulses. It is quite possible to get rid of these anti-nutritional factors and improve the bioavailability by using simple different domestic methods like soaking and germination have been proved to be beneficial for enhancing the nutritive value of moth bean and Sorghum.
| Conclusion|| |
The present investigation reveals that soaking and germination process not only save the time, energy and fuel consumption, but also enhances the nutritional quality in raw materials (moth bean and Sorghum seeds) just before the development of food products. These processes also significantly reduce the anti-nutritional components in the same. Therefore, moth bean and Sorghum can be used as singly or in combination food products; therefore, considered to be one of the best preventable measures for disorders of protein malnutrition.
| References|| |
Reicelly C. Functional foods a challenge for consumer's trends. Food Sci Technol 1994;5:121-3.
Hulse JH. Nature composition and utilization of grain legumes. In: Jambunathan R, editor. Uses of Tropical Grain Legumes. Patancheru, India: ICRISAT; 1991. p. 11-30.
Kawsar SMA, Huq E, Nahar N, Ozeki Y. Identification and quantification of phenolic acids in Macrotyloma uniflorum
by reversed phase HPLC. Am J Plant Physiol 2008;3:165-72.
Pawar VD, Ingle UM. Effect of germination on the functional properties of moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius
Jacq) flours. J Food Sci Technol 1988;25:7-10.
Elkhier MK, Hamid AO. Effect of malting on the chemical constituents, anti-nutrients factors, and ash composition of two sorghum cultivars (Feteria and Tabat) gown in Sudan. Res J Agric Biol Sci 2008;4:500-4.
John RN, Tilman J, Scott R. Review novel food and nonfood uses for sorghum and millets. Bean J Cereal Sci 2006;44:252-71.
Salunkhe DK, Kadam SS, Chavan JK. Nutrition quality of proteins in grain sorghum. Qualitas Plantarum 1977;27:187-205.
Hulse JH. Polyphenols in cereals and legumes. Proceeding of a Symposium Held During the 36 th
Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists, St. Louis, Missouri; 1979. p. 10-3.
Ramakrishna V, Jhansi Rani P, Rao R. Anti-nutritional factors during germination in Indian Bean (Dolichos lablab
L.) seeds. World J Dairy Food Sci 2006;1:06-11.
Abusing AE, Hassan S, Amro B, Baiker EE. Fadil. Nutritional evaluation of cooked faba bean (Vicia faba L.)
and white bean (Phareolus vulgaris L.)
cultivars. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2009;3:2484-90.
Sharma S. Estimation of proximate chemical composition. Experimentals and Techniques in Biochemistry. New Delhi: Galgotia Publication Pvt. Ltd.; 2008. p. 55-60.
Maynard AJ. Methods in Food Analysis. New York, London: Academic Press; 1970. p. 176.
Ogunlesi M, Okiei W, Azeez L, Obakachi V, Osunsanmi M, Nkenchor G. Vitamin C contents of tropical vegetables and foods determined by voltammetric and titrimetric methods and their relevance to the medicinal uses of the plants. Int J Electrochem Sci 2010;5:105-15.
Ranganna, S. Handbook of Analysis and Quality Control for Fruits and Vegetable Products. 5 th
ed. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited; 1986. p. 112.
Tamilselvi N, Krishnamoorthy P, Dhamotharan R, Arumugam P, Sagadevan E. Analysis of total phenols, total tannins and screening of phytocomponents in Indigofera aspalathoides
. J Chem Pharm Res 2012;4:3259-62.
Chen QC, Li BW. Separation of phytic acid and other related inositol phosphates by high-performance ion chromatography and its applications. J Chromatogr A 2003;1018:41-52.
Ahmed SM, Zhang Q, Chen J, Shen Q. Millet grains: Nutritional quality, processing, and potential health benefits. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2013;12:281-95.
Mazahib AM, Nuha MO, Salawa IS, Babiker EE. Some nutritional attributes of bambara groundnut as influenced by domestic processing. Int Food Res J 2013;20:1165-71.
Wu YV, Wall JS. Lysine content of protein increased by germination of normal and high-lysine sorghums. J Agric Food Chem 1980;28:455-8.
Vale AP, de Quirós RB, López A, Hernández J. Impact of germination time on Brassica sprouts yield and vitamin C content Vale, A. International Conference on Food Innovation; 2010.
Osman MA. Effect of different processing methods, on nutrient composition, antinutrional factors, and in vitro
protein digestibility of dolichos lablab bean [Lablab purpuresus
(L) Sweet]. Pak J Nutr 2007;6:299-303.
Vasishtha H, Srivastava RP. Changes in lipids and fatty acids during soaking and germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum
). Indian J Agric Biochem 2012;25:14-9.
Rusydi M, Noraliza MR, Azrina CW, Zulkhairi A. Nutritional changes in germinated legumes and rice varieties. Int Food Res J 2011;18:705-13.
Kylen AM, McReady RM. Nutrient in seeds and sprouts of alpha alpha, lentils mung bean and soybeans. J Food Sci 1975;40:1008-9.
Saha R, Dunkwal V. Development and nutritional analysis of value added spread instant mix. J Hum Ecol 2009;28:187-90.
Rao PU, Deosthale YG. Tannin content of pulses: Varietal differences, and effects of germination and cooking. J Food Sci Technol 1982;33:1013-6.
Deosthale Y. Pulses: Home processing and food value. Nutrition 1983;17:2-6.
Eskin NA, Simpson BK, Down JS, Oke OL. Effect of local food processing on phytate level in cassava, yam, maize, sorghum, rice, cowpea and soyabean. J Agric Food Chem 1990;38:1580-5.
Nielsen AV, Tetens I, Meyer AS. Potential of phytase-mediated iron release from cereal-based foods: A quantitative view. Nutrients 2013;5:3074-98.
Reddy NR, Balakrishnan CV, Salunkhe DK. Phytate phosphorus and mineral changes during germination and cooking of black gram (Phaseolus mungo
) seeds. J Food Sci 2006;43:540-3.
Duhan A, Khetarpaul N, Bishnoi S. Effect of various domestic processing and cooking methods on phytic acid and HCl-extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron of pigeon pea. Nutr Health 1999;13:161-9.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
|This article has been cited by|
||De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of gene expression in different tissues of moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) (Jacq.) Marechal
| ||Sandhya Suranjika, Seema Pradhan, Soumya Shree Nayak, Ajay Parida |
| ||BMC Plant Biology. 2022; 22(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Maize and Sorghum as Raw Materials for Brewing, a Review
| ||Adriana Dabija,Marius Eduard Ciocan,Ancuta Chetrariu,Georgiana Gabriela Codina |
| ||Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(7): 3139 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Study on the effect of stepwise decreasing microwave power drying (SDMPD) of moth bean sprouts on its quality
| ||Sejal R. Sedani,Ishvar L. Pardeshi,Amit R. Dorkar |
| ||Legume Science. 2021; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Evaluation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UG7 in improving cassava leaf meal as a raw material for fish feed
| || Mulyasari, Irma Melati, Yosmaniar, Subaryono |
| ||IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021; 860(1): 012002 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||African Sorghum-Based Fermented Foods: Past, Current and Future Prospects
| ||Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo |
| ||Nutrients. 2020; 12(4): 1111 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|